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要塞控制区

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要塞通过其控制区(Zone of Control,缩写ZoC)来限制敌部队的运动。本文严谨地解释了这个经常被误解的机制如何运作。

In particular, the key concept to understand is that movement of a unit depends on what its "Return Province" is, and not just on the province it is or the adjacent province it came from.

请注意,本文中的所有信息都来源于测试,而不是游戏源代码。因此,这些信息有可能是不准确的,仅供参考。

概念

控制区与非控制区省份

从每一个国家的视角来看,全世界的陆地省份都可以分为控制区省份和非控制区省份两种。

若某个省份有一个至少2级(免费的1级首都堡垒不计入)的未封存堡垒,并且该省份被某国占领,或属于某国且未被占领,那么该省份及其所有不属于该国敌人的邻省对该国的敌人来说均为控制区省份。

请注意,任何国家占领没有堡垒的省份都不会改变控制区,因为只有堡垒本身才受占领状态影响。

控制区省份会显示一条提示:“在【堡垒国家】位于【堡垒省份】的堡垒控制区中”,并且在堡垒地图模式中有条纹覆盖。

一个省份位于哪个堡垒的控制区中并没有区别,因此多个堡垒不会使情况复杂化。顺便一提,显然游戏中分配控制区时使用的是简单的全局堡垒组合规则,因此某个堡垒可能被归入别的堡垒的控制区中而不是它自己的,虽然这并没有什么区别。

单位的回归省份

每一个陆军单位都会存储一个“回归省份”,即该单位最近经过的非控制区陆地省份或近海省份(在存档文件的“previous_war”变量中)。若某个回归省份成为了控制区,这个变量会被重置。

回归省份是在单位离开某个非控制区省份时更新,而不是进入某个非控制区省份时!这很重要,如下所述。若某个回归省份变成了控制区省份,这个回归省份会被清除,也就是说回归省份永远是非控制区省份(或近海省份)。除了这两种情况外,似乎再没有别的情况会改变回归省份,包括比如通过围下一个堡垒使单位所在省份从控制区省份变为非控制区省份。

请注意,回归省份并不会在无法军事通行的情况下重置。实际上,这并不影响单位按照控制区规则来移动(你甚至在无法军事通行的情况下也可以移动到回归省份)。

当一个受玩家控制的单位位于控制区省份时,回归省份会在地图上以绿色旗子显示,并且有“回归省份”的提示。请注意,如果该单位位于非控制区省份中,回归省份仍然存在,并被用于首个离开此省份的移动指令(因为回归省份仅在离开非控制区省份时更新),但不会在地图上以绿色旗子显示。

对于非玩家控制的单位,和玩家控制的位于非控制区省份的单位,似乎并没有什么方法来确定它们的回归省份——除了观察它们的移动并记下来,或者保存游戏再用文本编辑器打开。

单位可以往何处移动并不仅仅取决于该单位位于的省份,也取决于该单位的回归省份(还有先前省份,虽然很少用到)。

Distance from Return Province

Each province can be thought to have a distance from the Return Province corresponding to the number of provinces in the shortest among the paths starting from it and visiting non-ZoC land provinces you have military access to, regardless of blocked straits, and then ending with either a non-ZoC province, a ZoC province or a ZoC province without a fort occupied (or owned and unoccupied) by an enemy followed by a ZoC province with a fort occupied (or owned and unoccupied) by an enemy (if there are no such paths, assign an infinite distance).

It seems that the movement rules only care about whether provinces are at distance 0, 1 or 2 from the Return Province, as the ZoC rule allows you to move to them if they don't have a non-neutral fort, and that the distance from the Return Province is otherwise irrelevant.

Previous Province of a unit

Each unit stores the Previous Province, i.e. the adjacent province it came from (in the "previous" variable in the save file). There doesn't seem to be a way to tell what it is from the game UI.

There's a movement rule that lets you go back to the Previous Province, but in most cases the Previous Province is already accessible according to the other rules.

Exceptions are due to the movement patterns made possible by the Return Province being only set when leaving a province, or due to the land or diplomatic landscape somehow changing.

Note that only the immediately previous province is stored, so you can't go back arbitrarily far.

Merging and reorganizing units

If you merge units, the merged unit has the Return Province of one of the merged units; it seems that it is the Return Province shown on the map when the multiple units are selected, which seems to be the one of the first unit in the list from which the merged unit also takes its name from; in turn, the list seems to be ordered according to the creation date of the army (where merging doesn't count as creation).

However, if you use the Reorganize Units button instead of the Merge button, and the units don't both have a general in hostile territory, it is possible to move all regiments from a unit into another, and the Return Province of the unit you moved regiments to is of course used for the resulting unit.

See below for a detailed instructions on how to combine units with the desired Return Province in almost all cases.

Movement rules

Movement to a non-adjacent province is possible if and only if movement is possible "step by step" but without updating the Return Province between each step (this sometimes matters as described below). Note that the Return Province is updated after each non-ZoC province is left even if a non-adjacent movement command is sent and the lack of update only matters when deciding if the movement is allowed. Battles do not cancel movement commands, and movement resumes once the battle ends (assuming the unit did not retreat or got stack wiped).

Note that all ZoC rules are checked at the time the movement order is given. Changes in ZoC afterwards are ignored.

Movement to an adjacent province is only possible if you have military access to it (with the exception of moving to the Return Province) and if there isn't a blocked strait (with no exceptions). A blocked strait is a strait where there are enemy ships in the sea and at least one of the two provinces is occupied (or owned and unoccupied) by an enemy.

Once that is satisfied, then movement is possible if any of the following rules applies.

Non-ZoC rule

You can always move from a non-ZoC province to any adjacent province.

Previous Province rule

You can always move back to the Previous Province, i.e. the adjacent province you came from.

Ship rule

You can always move to a transport ship in an adjacent sea tile.

Fort rule

Moving to any non-neutral fort is possible if you are not on a fort occupied (or owned and unoccupied) by an enemy or if the target fort is directly adjacent to the Return Province or is the Return Province.

Where the fort rule does NOT apply

ZoC rule

From a ZoC province you can always directly move to any province without a non-neutral fort that is either the Return Province, a province adjacent to the Return Province, or a province adjacent to a militarily accessible non-ZoC province adjacent to the Return Province (i.e. any province with distance from the Previous Province as previously defined up to 2).

It doesn't matter whether there is a blocked strait in the path from the Return Province to the target province (but of course they matter in the movement itself).

It doesn't matter whether you have military access or not to the Return Province, and you can even move to it if you don't have military access to it (but you need access to the target province and the intermediate one in the path, if any).

Where the ZoC rule does NOT apply

Important consequences of the movement rules

Note that these are almost certainly unintended, and so the rules may hopefully be changed in a future patch to remove these dubious properties of the current system.

A->C via B being allowed does not imply A->B->C being allowed

Unfortunately, in the current ruleset, it is sometimes possible that, with A being a non-ZoC province, you can move from A to C with a single movement command resulting in a path passing through B, but that you can't move from A to C with two movement command from A->B and B->C.

The reason for this is that the Return Province is only updated when leaving a non-ZoC province (and not when entering it), but indirect movement commands are computed without updating the Return Province. This means that whether B->C is allowed will be evaluated with Return Province A if you first move to B (because you left it), but will be evaluated with whatever Return Province the unit had as it reached A if you directly move to C.

This can result in suprising behavior and being trapped beyond sieged forts if you move your sieging units incorrectly, as described later.

Pathfinding does not find the shortest path and depends on the Return Province

Pathfinding does not update the Return Province when pathfinding, which means that it will not consider all paths that can be performed step by step, and for example will never choose a path that moves between two ZoC provinces without forts that are far away, even though such a path might be possible if performed step by step.

Thus, pathfinding can depend on where the unit comes from, even when in a non-ZoC province, as shown in the following example.

Other consequences of the movement rules

Clearing misconceptions

  • It is not true that you can always move from a ZoC to a non-ZoC province.
  • It is not true that you can never move from a province next to a fort to another province next to a fort.
  • It is not true that you can never move between enemy forts. You can do so if both are adjacent to the Return Province.
  • You cannot move beyond ZoC even to your own territory, unless you have a fort (including just a capital fort) there and you are moving from a province without an enemy fort
  • Recently unmothballed forts with 0 garrison still project ZoC (but they can be sieged in one tick like an unfortified province)

Miscellanous considerations

  • Movement, except for movement on provinces containing a fort, only depends on whether a province is within the ZoC of a fort, but it doesn't depend on the actual position of the forts or whether fort ZoCs overlap or not
  • Building new forts never makes more provinces accessible to the enemy, except possibly for the new fort province itself, if it is next to an enemy-reachable ZoC province without a fort
  • A "ring" of ZoC provinces will make any contained province inaccessible (even if it's non-ZoC) unless it's a fort adjacent to a province of the outer border that doesn't contain a fort
  • It's best to move into ZoC territory from a non-ZoC province that is equally distant to many ZoC provinces as opposed to moving from a province that is "off to a side", so that you can move more directly in the ZoC territory
  • It may be best to do an amphibious landing into a ZoC province as opposed to into a non-ZoC province if the sea tile is adjacent to many ZoC provinces as you can then freely move between the ZoC provinces on the coast since your Return Province remains set to the sea tile

Combining units

As described in the rules, if when selecting multiple units the desired Return Province is shown, you can just use the Merge button to combine them.

Otherwise, if you have more than two armies to combine, first merge all the armies other than the one with the desired Return Province.

Then, unless both units have general and are in hostile territory, you can use the Reorganize Units button instead of the Merge Button to move all regiments into the unit whose Return Province you want to use.

If both units have a general and you are in hostile territory, then you can create a new unit with one regiment from any unit with at least 2 regiments and then use Reorganize Units to move all the regiments (and general) from the unit with the undesired Return Province to the newly created unit. Now that newly created unit should be last in the list, and thus merging should result in the desired Return Province.

In case you have exactly two armies with exactly one regiment each and both with leaders in hostile territory, there doesn't seem to be any way to combine the units with the Return Province being set to the Return Province of the second unit in the list other than editing the save file by swapping the "previous_war" values of the two armies, loading it and merging them.

Rings/barriers of ZoC provinces and defending with them

In general a "ring"/"barrier" of ZoC provinces (somewhat more formally, consider, for each connected component of ZoC provinces, the ones that are reachable from any province far away passing only by non-ZoC provinces) will prevent passage from outside to inside and from inside to outside, with the exception of fort directly adjacent to a ZoC province of the ring that doesn't itself contain a fort.

This means that if all the provinces on the border of your country are in the ZoC of a fort, regardless of the exact fort layout, it will be impossible to reach the inside of your country without sieging forts first, no matter where the enemy comes from or how it moves.

This can be used to make sure your standing army cannot be immediately wiped out and give you time to use those unreachable interior provinces to train mercenaries non-stop until your overall army is bigger and then relieve the siege with guaranteed defender bonuses in combat (this means it's best to place forts in defensive terrain). Without such a fort setup, an enemy with a superior army could instead invade, immediately reach and wipe out your army, and then carpet siege all provinces to guarantee a 100% warscore victory.

Of course forts have expensive maintenance, so this strategy is only optimal if you expect an alliance of enemies with an army superior to yours to declare a surprise war, and if the forts would be less expensive that simply getting a large enough standing army, possibly involving paying for being over the force limit and/or paying for standing mercenaries.

If you don't form such a ring of ZoC provinces (as well as natural barriers like other countries that won't give military access to the enemy and that are fortified themselves, or the sea if you are sure you will have naval superiority), forts will not make any part of your country inaccessible. However, they can still slow down the enemy and possibly cause him to split its forces, as well as preventing the ZoC provinces from being asked for in a peace deal if the fort has not been sieged.

Attacking rings/barriers of ZoC provinces and getting trapped in them

When you are the attacker, you run the risk of getting trapped behind rings or barriers of ZoC provinces if you don't move your units very carefully.

In particular, if you siege down a inner redundant fort without other nearby forts, such that there is still a ring of ZoC provinces enclosing an interior region after sieging the fort and that the fort you sieged is now in that interior, you run the risk of being trapped.

If after such a siege you move either to an inside non-ZoC province, or to a province on the ring of ZoC provinces, your Return Province will be reset to the fort, which means that you are now "considered inside" the ring and won't be able to get out normally.

If however you directly, with a SINGLE movement command, move to the outside by right clicking on an outside non-ZoC province, you will be able to get there, because sieging down a fort does not reset the Return Province, which will still be on the outside.

If you make a mistake and get your units trapped, you can still usually move them to a ZoC province on the ring and have them meet up with a unit coming from the outside (such as a single mercenary infantry regiment; note that you must build it in an outside non-ZoC province and move it to the ZoC province, not build it directly in an occupied ZoC province on the ring, as it then won't be able to move at all except to a nearby fort or ship!). You can then follow the advice in Combining units on how to use the Reorganize Units feature to combine these two units in a way that results in a unit that can move back outside where your "liberating unit" came from.

In addition to that, if both a unit of yours and its Return Province is next to an enemy fort you occupied and the enemy sieges it back, the Return Province will be reset as it becomes ZoC again and your unit will be in a ZoC province, meaning that the ZoC rule will not apply and you will only be able to move the unit to a nearby enemy fort, to a transport ship or to the Previous Province, unless you rescue it by combining units (if the province is still reachable by any of your other units).

Thus, if you need to park a unit in such a position, it may be smart to make sure you moved it to the province from a province that won't become ZoC as a result of the enemy resieging forts, so that you can go back there.

Reproducing the screenshots

To reproduce the screenshots, start in normal mode and use the "god", "yesman", "winwars" and "fast_diplo" and "ai" console commands. Make sure that enemy forts are not mothballed unless you want to test how they behave when mothballed. To siege forts more quickly, use "leader 99 99 99 99" to get a 99 siege general. Use the "tag" command to switch to other countries and then the "ai" command to again disable the AI of the country you switched from.

The screenshots are produced by starting and declaring war in one of these ways:

  • Byzantium vs Ottomans in 1444
  • Austria vs France in 1792
  • Commonwealth vs Russia in 1792. You need to tag switch to Russia, make peace and delete the fort in Kursk and build one in Severia.
  • Maguindanao vs Spain in 1792. You need to tag switch to Spain and build a fort in Tondo and some ships in nearby provinces to block the straits.

See also

Military power.png 战争
陆战 陆军陆军单位训练度人力
海战 海军海军单位水手
其它 宣战理由厌战度军事传统将领军事同盟要塞控制区