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殖民策略

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适当的殖民策略可以为殖民国家带来很多的好处。殖民的优先级主要取决于两个因素:一个是殖民国的主要贸易港口的位置,另一个是该国与思潮的主要发源地——欧洲的位置关系。

历史上,有五个强大的欧洲国家在海外创造了带来巨大利益的殖民帝国: 西班牙 葡萄牙 法兰西 大不列颠 尼德兰,也有许多其他国家在海外殖过民。但是在欧陆风云4里,任何国家都能通过正确的计划建立起属于它们自己的庞大的殖民帝国。

基础策略

一般来说,如果玩家能够最终把殖民地的贸易值引导回它们的贸易本埠,或者引导到一个他能够完全支配的贸易节点并在那里获得收入,那么殖民就是有利可图的。有鉴于此,一些国家能够比其他国家更充分的利用殖民地。为了了解如何从殖民中收益,玩家必须阅读贸易地图并且弄清楚怎么样把贸易值引导到本埠或者能够有效收集的贸易节点。

例1:  葡萄牙的主要贸易节点在塞维利亚地区。塞维利亚直接连接到新大陆的加勒比节点,这意味着任何加勒比节点的殖民地所产生的贸易值只要玩家在那有着足够的贸易力量就能被引导到塞维利亚节点。同时,在新大陆建立一个殖民领会提供它们国家的50%的贸易力量葡萄牙来帮助葡萄牙引导贸易。因此,加勒比对葡萄牙来说,是一个绝佳的殖民地点。加勒比节点还连接着许多其他的殖民区域,比如墨西哥,里奥格兰德等。 同时,塞维利亚节点还连接到象牙海岸。象牙海岸那里也有许多可以殖民的省份,而且象牙海岸还有许多来自其他可殖民地区(包括巴西、好望角、桑给巴尔、亚马逊等等)贸易节点的流经此处的贸易额。控制象牙海岸对葡萄牙来说是一个不错的主意,玩家还可以在更遥远的区域殖民,只要玩家能够在整条路线上拥有足够的贸易力量,这些贸易值就能被引导回塞维利亚,葡萄牙还可以在象牙海岸建立贸易公司来帮助它实现这一计划。

但是,来自于圣劳伦斯、俄亥俄、切萨皮克湾和休斯顿湾这几个贸易节点的贸易额不可能被引导到塞维利亚。这意味着殖民这几个贸易节点只有在其他的地方都被殖民完了才应该被考虑。 Even if Portugal took Important Trade Centres away from other colonizers, the only way to prevent Trade Value from reaching the nations in nodes such as English Channel would be for Portugal to have a merchant collect trade in one of these nodes, which would damage the trade power in all of Portugal's other nodes.

例2:  威尼斯是一个拥有着强大贸易理念的商业共和国。但是,从世界贸易流向图可以看到,新世界只有加利福尼亚、墨西哥和里奥格兰德这三个贸易节点能够被引导到威尼斯。而且,这还是威尼斯已经在一些关键节点拥有了足够的贸易力量的前提下。这些关键节点包括 马穆鲁克控制的亚历山大港,  大明控制的杭州和 日本控制的日本,想要足够的贸易额到达威尼斯,那么和这些国家的争端几乎就是不可避免的。

Venice can eventually benefit from some Trade Company regions; if the player can control the Alexandria, Gulf of Aden, Ceylon and Bengal nodes via warfare, they can benefit from the colonization of Indonesia and even Australia. Due to their location, Venice will have a difficult time gaining Colonial Range to Indonesia regardless, until they can conquer the Horn of Africa.

An easier route to benefiting from colonization as Venice requires early expansion to the New World, so as to dominate one of the New World trade nodes sufficiently to collect trade profitably despite the penalty for collecting from a trade node away from the player's main trading port. Whilst Venice starts at a disadvantage in this respect because of its further distance from the New World compared to European nations on the Atlantic seaboard, Venice can seek to capture or colonize a West African territory and use this as a platform from which to colonize the New World. With focused attention on colonization, Venice can then compete with other colonizing nations, but must collect trade income in a New World trade node, such as the Caribbean, given the low chance of controlling European trade nodes which connect efficiently to the Americas.

Note that any nation can move its Trade Port to any other node where they have a province, even overseas. Before the player does this, they should ensure that they possess enough Trade Power in both the new home node, as well as upstream connected nodes, to make it worthwhile. Even so, the nation will still forfeit Trade Value generated in any nodes that do not connect to the new Trade Port, which may include nodes where that nation has many developed provinces. In general, a nation should have its Trade Port in the furthest downstream node to which it can control and push Trade Value.

商人团

拥有10个或更多省份的殖民领,或者在贸易节点控制51%以上贸易的贸易公司,会给母国提供一个额外的Merchants.png商人团(如果有适当的DLC,黄金国或者国富论提供这个特性)。这些商人团是无价之宝,不仅因为他们在该国的 本土节点 转移贸易 时提供 +10% 额外的 贸易力量,而且他们还允许该国在有多个出口的节点引导贸易流动的方向。

This second factor can make a significant difference in the amount of Trade Value a nation receives. Because of this, a player should prefer to place Merchants in nodes with multiple exits, so that trade can be steered towards the nation's home node. Nations will always use all their Trade Power in any node to pull Trade downstream, even without a Merchant, unless a Merchant is Collecting Trade in that location. Therefore, any upstream nodes with only one exit will automatically pull in the correct direction.

Example: Spain has 2 Merchants, and has colonized provinces in the Ivory Coast, Cape of Good Hope, Zanzibar and Malacca nodes. Spain should place the Merchants in Malacca (to steer trade to Zanzibar instead of Bengal) and Ivory Coast (to steer trade to Sevilla instead of Bordeaux, English Channel, or Caribbean). If Spain gets a 3rd Merchant, placing it in either Zanzibar or Cape is equally good, as Spain will get a +10% bonus to Trade Power regardless, and Zanzibar and Cape have only one exit.

思潮

对于亚洲、非洲和新世界国家来说,殖民是从那些已经接受思潮的国家获得思潮的有效途径,特别是文艺复兴和印刷机,这两个思潮肯定会出现在欧洲的某个地方。

殖民者特别感兴趣的是殖民主义思潮。这不仅仅是因为殖民主义可以出现在任何一个在探索理念中解锁了“探索新世界”理念并已经发现新大陆的国家,还因为殖民主义会在任何一个拥有新大陆殖民领的国家中传播,而无需与任何国家相邻。这使得1500年之前开始殖民的国家在殖民主义思潮上获得巨大的优势。

由于殖民领和贸易公司可以向母国转移大量财富,殖民国家也有一定的能力去影响全球贸易思潮出现的地点。

跳岛

在殖民范围很短的游戏早期,想要跨越大洋必须跳岛。重视殖民范围可以使玩家比AI国家更快抢到关键省份,或者找到与适当的国家接壤以接受思潮的最快途径。

基础的殖民范围在3级外交科技时是160,7级外交科技时则是275。探索理念的第3项理念“海外探险”可以提供+50%的殖民范围,雇用航海家顾问也可以提供+20%殖民范围。

因此,最重要的范围数是192、272和467.5。

随机新大陆

If a Random New World is generated, it is important that the player discover the newly generated Trade Nodes as soon as possible, as the flow of trade may be such that normally valuable Trade Nodes, such as Sevilla, may possibly receive no Trade Value from the New World whatsoever. The player will have to adjust their colonization strategy to compensate for this, most likely focusing on Trade Companies and the static African and Asian colonizable areas instead.

Trade Nodes in a random new world connect in some typical ways. One (and only one) may connect to the following node or pair of nodes in the old world; North Sea and English Channel, Bordeaux and Seville, Safi and Ivory Coast, Girin and Nippon, or Australia. The Philippines trade node may connect to one (and only one) trade node in a random new world to mirror the Philippines connection to the Mexico trade node in the standard version. All of the new world trade nodes will be interconnected coherently so that trade will always flow out of the new world and into the old. In other words there are no end nodes and no endless loops of trade within the new world.

Colonial Regions in a random new world usually, but do not always, share the same boundaries as trade nodes. In some map configurations, usually those with a large number of colonial regions, some provinces may not be in any colonial region but will remain with the first colonizer unless sold, lost in a war, or otherwise transferred. Occasionally, again usually in those configurations with a large number of colonial regions, some colonial regions are too small to form Colonial Nations.

各科技组的殖民策略

Technology groups are being used here primarily to identify the general location of a nation on the world map, as tech groups no longer have a direct effect on technology costs.

西欧科技组国家

Befitting their historical importance in this field, nations with their capitals in Western Europe have the potential for the most monetary gain from overseas territories.

European nations have a greater chance to be close to the spawning point of institutions, and so will be less vulnerable to falling behind in technology. This not only means that European nations may be able to unlock Exploration and Expansion ideas more quickly than other nations, but it also means that their colonies will grow more quickly than other nations, will be more profitable, and will be protected more easily, due to higher Diplomatic Technology level providing extra Global Settler Increase, stronger navies, and more Trade Power and Efficiency.

There is no territory in Europe to colonize, but any overseas colony can be just as valuable as a domestic province if they are part of a State. However, the maintenance cost of State membership and relative wealth of the location must be taken into account. In the case of Trade Company regions, in most cases Western nations will benefit more from creating Trade Companies than they will from taking control of the provinces directly, due to the significant bonuses provided to Trade Power and Goods Produced. However, Trade Companies provide no Manpower nor Taxes to the owner, whereas directly-controlled overseas States can still provide these resources.

Colonies in Colonial Regions will, of course, be ceded to a forming Colonial Nation once five provinces are colonized, with all of the benefits and drawbacks of such.

In regards to Institutions, Western European colonizer nations may possibly have the best access to Institution spread of all nations in the game. These nations will start with Feudalism, will have local access to Renaissance and Printing Press due to having a capital in Europe, and will have a good chance to spawn Colonialism and Global Trade within their country. Even if Institutions like Global Trade, Manufactories, or Enlightenment have their source province overseas, a colonizer nation should easily be able to obtain at least some spread value from these locations, thanks to their global influence and the specific spread value triggers for certain institutions.

Reaching India, the East Indies and the rest of Asia is a historical achievement for European colonizers. European nations with exploration idea group unlocked will receive the missions such as "Get into India" and "Establish a foothold in China/Spice Islands" in the mid- to late-game. These will always involve colonizing (or conquering) an Important Center of Trade province in a Trade Company region in this area.

东欧和安纳托利亚科技组国家

For the most part, Eastern and Anatolian technology nations receive few benefits from overseas colonization. To receive any significant Trade Value from either the New World or important Trade Nodes such as Malacca, the player will have to conquer extremely large portions of Asia, which may be impossible, impractical or simply dull.

The only Eastern technology nation that benefits substantially from colonization is  莫斯科, or any nation that conquers them early on, such as  诺夫哥罗德 or  立陶宛. This is because it will allow the player to colonize the Siberia region, which can result in several free, remote, provinces with Gold as the Trade Good. These provinces are best taken advantage of using the colonist from the Expansion idea group, not Exploration. If the player can make it all the way to the Far East and can control the Hangzhou or Beijing nodes, they can route trade from limited areas of the New World, specifically California, Mexico and Rio Grande.

Even though a Colonial Nation can help to spawn or encourage the spread of the Colonialism institution, Eastern technology nations are usually close enough to natural AI colonizers that they will get this institution relatively quickly regardless. In addition, these nations may have difficulty obtaining Colonial Range to the New World, especially by 1500 when the Colonialism institution is scheduled to appear.

Eastern Slavic nations are not required to take Exploration or Expansion ideas, as they will gain the "Siberian Frontier" ability once they form Russia, which allows them to establish a Siberian Frontier colony in any empty province with a direct land connection to its capital. This province will then grow by 5 to 15 colonists every month.

穆斯林科技组国家

Muslim technology nations only sometimes benefit from colonization; how much so depends on the Main Trade Port of the nation in question, since Muslim nations can range across a wide area.

Nations near the Gulf of Aden or Hormuz may benefit from Trade Value produced in Indonesia, China or India, but keep in mind that a nation also cannot create a Trade Company on the same continent as its capital, so keeping control of Centres of Trade is necessary. African or Asian nations may be forced to take direct control of overseas territory, via making the area a State, in order to compete with the Trade Company bonuses from Western powers.

Unless North African nations, such as  摩洛哥, manage to control the Sevilla or Genoa nodes, these nations possibly derive the least benefit from colonization of any nation, as the trade route from Ivory Coast to Sevilla bypasses Safi. If a Random New World is generated, Trade Value may sometimes flow through the Safi node, making colonization strategies for these nations viable. Even obtaining Colonialism should not be too difficult due to nearly  葡萄牙 and  西班牙, though they will likely be hostile, reducing the spread rate significantly.

印度科技组国家

Nations in the Indian technology group are part of Asia and as such have much quicker access to the rich provinces in Indonesia, and can easily pull Trade from these provinces back to Bengal, Ceylon, or Goa. Due to the trade flow, nations in Doab, Kashmir or Lhasa benefit very little from overseas territory, but these nations should move their Trade ports to better downstream nodes as quickly as is convenient. Unfortunately, Trade Companies are next to useless for Indian nations due to the worldwide flow of trade; African Trade Value cannot be routed back to Indian nodes, and Trade Companies cannot be created on the same continent as a nation's capital.

Obtaining or even spawning Colonialism can be difficult for Indian nations as they may have difficulty obtaining Colonial Range to the New World, even when taking Exploration ideas first. Later on, colonization may be useful in order to border Western nations, in order to obtain institution spread from them.

中华科技组国家和草原游牧部落

中华科技组国家只存在于亚洲,所以可以殖民印度尼西亚区域,以及在澳大利亚创立殖民领,由此获得可观的收益。然而,这个地区的贸易流向使得来自菲律宾、摩鹿加、澳大利亚或马六甲的贸易都不能被拉回大部分这些国家所处的上游节点(暹罗、广州、杭州、北京)。如果能够适当控制马六甲节点,大多数聚焦于贸易中华科技组大陆国家(包括草原游牧)都应该把它们的贸易本埠移动到这里来。孟加拉也是一个可选的位置,对于某些国家来说它更容易控制。

那些有幸在印度尼西亚开局的中华科技组国家,诸如 八昔 文莱或者 马六甲,一般能从它们的国家理念获得殖民人口加成,并且从殖民活动中极大地受益——不仅能抢占在印度尼西亚区域内的领土,还能阻止欧洲殖民者在该区域夺取领土。在加利福尼亚、澳大利亚、里奥格兰德和墨西哥的殖民领也能转移贸易值到印度尼西亚的贸易节点。

草原游牧,或者诸如 朝鲜 日本之流的远东国家,能通过早期殖民去夺取西伯利亚未殖民的省份。这些省份可能有黄金,并且在必要时也能限制 俄罗斯的力量。一个控制着北京或者杭州节点的北方国家能从新大陆有限的地区接收贸易值,特别是加利福尼亚、里奥格兰德和墨西哥,使得在这些地区建立殖民领更加有益。

如果有随机新世界中华科技组国家和草原游牧有时可能会发现巨量的新大陆贸易流向吉林、日本、菲律宾、摩鹿加甚至是澳大利亚,使得殖民领在这种情况下更加有用处。

所有这些国家都能运用殖民在获取思潮时极大受益,尤其是殖民主义全球贸易。澳大利亚是个切实可行的殖民领

西非、东非和中非科技组国家

These nations can derive great benefits from colonization, but there are risks involved due to the tendency of major European colonizers to focus on this area. There are many empty provinces in this area as well as around Africa itself that can be colonized, but all African nations face great danger if a European power declares war on them for this territory.

If some control of the Ivory Coast trade node can be secured, Western African nations can benefit from Colonial Nations with provinces in the Brazil, Amazonas, Rio de la Plata, Cuiaba or Patagonia trade nodes. Ivory Coast also receives trade, either directly or indirectly, from nearly all of Asia as well as Australia, California, Mexico, and Rio Grande. Eastern and Central African nations, due to their location at or near the Zanzibar node, are capable of pulling trade from Indonesian provinces directly to their doorstep through Malacca, which can be very profitable indeed. However, African nations will only be able to create Trade Companies in Asia.

If a Random New World is generated, substantially more (or less) Trade Value may flow into Ivory Coast, making the node more (or less) valuable to control.

Colonialism can be very easy to spawn or spread into Western African nations that take Exploration, due to their proximity to South America.

北美和南美土著科技组国家

As these nations usually start with very few provinces in an area with large amounts of empty territory, colonization is essential to playing these nations. All North and South American nations can receive a bonus colonist through either their religious or government reform track, which can assist in obtaining as many provinces as possible. Nahuatl, Mayan or Inti nations will keep the bonus colonist even after Westernizing, as long as they keep their pagan religion.

Migratory nations can easily migrate to control Centres of Trade or Estuaries in their Trade Node of choice before commencing colonization, but this may put the nation in danger later in the game, as European colonizers prefer Centers of Trade over any other provinces, and may declare war to obtain one.

In general, colonizing towards the east coast of North or South America will result in quicker modernization in tech, but also comes with a greater risk of invasion by European powers before the player is prepared. Colonizing to the west will be in most cases safer, but may result in high technology costs for most of the game. If a North or South American native has finished their appropriate government or religious reform track, simply bordering any nation with adopted Institutions will allow that nation to reform their government or religion, getting a massive boost in technology and adopting all institutions in the adjacent nation instantly, so colonization to obtain one of these borders (when the time comes) is higher recommended. However, further institution spread (after the initial boost) may be difficult to obtain.

Once a native nation's borders have expanded sufficiently, the player will want to move the nation's Main Trading Port as far downstream as is reasonable, as many trade nodes in North or South America are source nodes, or have a single preceding node, and thus are very poor. In terms of overseas territory, nations with their Main Trading Port in Panama can pull Trade Value from the Phillippines as well as nodes upstream of this, such as Hangzhou. Most interestingly of all, nations with a Main Trading Port in the Caribbean can pull Trade from all of South America, most of North America, most of Africa, and nearly all of southern Asia, as the Caribbean node can pull trade from Ivory Coast or Panama. This makes the Caribbean by far the best home node for a nation in North or South America, but it may be very difficult to control.

Nations with their capitals in North or South America cannot form Colonial Nations in any region (not even Australia). Colonies that would normally be ceded to Colonial Nations will remain as regular provinces instead and can be added to States to receive the full benefit from such provinces.

In a Random New World, the player should inspect their chosen nation to see if they can reasonably be played. Many Native nations generated in a Random New World are located on small, isolated islands, or smaller landmasses that have no uncolonized territory. This means that the player will be trapped on their land mass, as they cannot yet colonize over water. It will also mean that Native Councils, or nations of Nahuatl, Inti or Mayan religion, will never be able to border a nation with an Institution, and so will not be able to reform. For American religious pagans, an absence of ownable territory or vassalizable nations may prevent the player from reforming their religion entirely.

When selecting a nation in a Random New World, either select an appropriate native nation on a large land mass with plenty of uncolonized territory, or select (or customize) a nation is not a Native Council, or that is not an unreformed Nahuatl, Mayan or Inti nation.

参考资料